Terms defined: GUI designer, Integrated Development Environment, What You See Is What You Get, auto-completion, code browser, compiled language, console, curly-brace language, documentation generator, dynamic analysis, dynamic typing, generational garbage collection, interpreted language, just-in-time compiler, model, package manager, plugin, refactoring, static typing, virtual machine.

Tools don't just help us do things more easily; they shape what we consider possible and encourage some working practices while discouraging others. They also advertise how seriously we take our craft: people who want to be good at something are willing to invest time in learning how to do it better.

I believe that processes are more important than tools, but that's because I know how to use whatever tools I have to support productive working practices. However, I focus on tools when talking to students because they are more tangible: it's easier to tell if someone is using version control or a style checker than it is to tell if they're designing or estimating sensibly.

introduced build managers, style checkers, and profilers; the sections below discuss some other tools you might want in your toolbox. You shouldn't try to adopt all of them in a single semester unless the focus of your project course is to try out as many tools as possible (which is actually a good theme for a project course). If you'd rather not improve your tools, but are afraid that someone on your team might want to do so, Farmer2006 is a not-entirely-serious guide to preventing something new from being adopted.

Programming Language

You may not get to choose what programming language you use for your project, but it may be the most important choice there is. Programmers have argued about which language is best for as long as there have been programmers. In my experience, it makes a lot less difference than most people think…

…as long as you use the right one, that is. Twenty years ago there was a pretty clear tradeoff between how quickly you can get a program running and how fast it ran. Interpreted languages like Perl optimized programmers' time; compiled languages like C optimized the machine's.

Today, the balance has shifted in favor of higher-level languages. One reason is that processors have gotten faster but people haven't, so one programmer-hour is worth many more computer-hours than before. Another reason is that just-in-time compilers (JITs) and generational garbage collection have made higher-level languages intrinsically faster. The biggest, though, is that the execution time of a modern application depends less on squeezing cycles out of processors than it used to. The bottleneck in a web site is almost always network latency or the time required to perform database operations; your code probably accounts for only a few percent of the total, so doubling or tentupling its speed has less effect than you'd think.

That said, there are three things to keep in mind:

Some languages are easier to learn than others.
Stefik2013 did a controlled experiment to see how quickly people could learn to recognize correct and incorrect syntax in several different languages. They found that curly-brace languages like Java and Perl were as hard for people to learn as a language with a randomly designed syntax. (They rolled Dungeons & Dragons dice to pick random names and characters for a made-up language.) Other languages like Ruby and Python were significantly easier to learn, and they are now building a language called Quorum by testing the usability of every language feature.
Static typing helps, but only a little.
A statically-typed language like Java requires programmers to specify the data type of each variable; a dynamically-typed one like Python doesn't require them, though you can add them if you want, while TypeScript adds types as a layer on top of JavaScript. Endrikat2014 found that declaring types does add complexity to programs, but it pays off fairly quickly by acting as documentation and by making auto-completion more accurate.
The most important thing about a language is its community.
Some programming communities work hard to welcome newcomers and treat everyone respectfully. Others are more likely to call naïve questions "stupid" or to make excuses when their leaders harass people Cohen2018. As a junior programmer, you will learn more from the former than from the latter.

Stefik2017 is a good short summary of what we know and why we believe it's true. If someone disagrees with it, ask them to show you their evidence.

Package Management

There is no point building software if you can't install it. Inspired by the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network, most languages now have an online archive from which developers can download packages. Each package typically has a name and one or more version(s); each version may have a list of dependencies, and the package may specify a version or range of versions for each dependency.

A package manager is a program that keeps track of which packages are installed on your computer and how they depend on each other. Package managers became popular out of necessity in the 1990s along with Linux: so many distributions were being updated so often that people needed tools to keep track of what they had.

Some package managers, like APT for Linux and Homebrew for MacOS, can handle many languages. Others, like pip for Python and NPM for JavaScript, are language-specific. No matter which one you use, the biggest challenge you'll face is finding the packages you need: at the time of writing, this search turns up over 700 XML parsers for a JavaScript. To help narrow the search, NPM allows the results to be sorted by popularity, quality, and maintenance. This obviously creates a feedback loop—if NPM labels a package "more popular" then more people will find it, which raises its popularity score even further—but NPMS is open about how these scores are calculated, so package authors can find out what they need to do in order to improve their scores.

Whatever package manager you use, your project should follow these rules:

Keep a record.
NPM automatically updates a project's package.json file to show which packages have been installed explicitly, and its package-lock.json file keeps track of exactly which versions of their dependencies have been installed as well, so in theory, someone else can duplicate your environment exactly. If you are using pip for Python, on the other hand, it's up to you to create a file (typically called requirements.txt) that lists the packages someone needs to make your project work.
To install is beautiful, to uninstall divine.
You should install packages to try them out before committing to using them, but if you decide that something doesn't do what you want, please remember to uninstall it. (I have worked with projects that used less than half of their "requirements".)
Keep an eye on security updates.
NPM will warn you if there are security problems with things you depend on. The world would be a slightly safer place if other package managers did this as well.


Docker uses some clever tricks to run one operating system on top of another to create a virtual machine (VM) that is isolated from everything beneath it. It and other tools like it are used by most cloud computing services and to run continuous integration systems (), but they are essentially an admission that we haven't figured out how to manage packaging reliably.

Integrated Development Environment

You are going to spend a lot of time editing code, documentation, and reports, so choosing a good editor is as important as choosing a comfortable chair. There are literally thousands to consider, from very small plain-text editors such as Notepad (which comes with Windows) to very large ones like Emacs (which some people claim is actually Lisp-based operating system in disguise).

Stuck in the punchcard era

In many ways, programming is still stuck in the punchcard era: we still insist that source code be represented as lines of characters that are drawn one-for-one on the screen. WYSIWYG editors like Microsoft Word did away with this model decades ago; they store the file in a machine-friendly format and then render it in a human-friendly way. There's no reason we couldn't do the same with programs. There's no reason we shouldn't be able to draw a diagram directly in our source code like we can in a Google Doc; if you are looking for a project to tackle, this would be a good one.

You might already have a favorite editor. If you're like most programmers, you will change jobs, languages, operating systems, and nationality before you'll switch to another, because it has taken weeks or months for your hands to master the current one. However, if it is not an integrated development environment (IDE) that combines an editor with other programming tools then getting work done will take longer and hurt more than it needs to.

IDEs were invented in the 1970s, but didn't really catch on until Borland released Turbo Pascal in the 1980s. They usually include these tools:

The most popular IDE today is probably Microsoft Visual Studio Code, often referred to simply as "VS Code". Along with all the tools above, it has hundreds of plugins of varying quality to support database design, reverse engineering, dozens of different programming languages, and more. These all make you more productive than their disconnected counterparts. Since most of these store project data (including build instructions) in a proprietary format, your team will do much better if you all adopt the same IDE. This will also let you help one another solve problems and share plugins.

But calling VS Code is the world's most popular IDE is misleading. If you open developer tools. in Firefox, Chrome, or Edge, you will be shown an HTML browser that's smart enough to tell you which bits of CSS are in effect where, a console that displays messages from the JavaScript running in the page, a breakpointing debugger (), a network monitor, and much more. It won't help you with your C# or Python—at least, not yet—but it will make all of your front-end work a lot easier.


After a debugger, the most under-appreciated power of most IDEs is their ability to refactor code, i.e., to change its structure without changing what it does Fowler2018. It is just as much a part of programming as writing code in the first place: nobody gets things right the first time, and needs or insights can change over time Brand1995.

Some common refactoring patterns include "hoist repeated calculation out of loop" and "replace repeated test with flag". As Kerievsky2004 showed, many refactorings make code fit a design pattern or move code from one design pattern to another. If you highlight a variable name in an IDE like VS Code and say, "Rename", it parses the code to find all uses of that variable and changes their names and only their names, so that (for example) you don't accidentally turn alfred into alfblue. "Extract method" is another favorite of mine: if a method is getting too long or you want to re-use part of its implementation, you can highlight a few lines, click, and enter a name, and the IDE will do the rest of the work for you.

Using refactoring tools doesn't just save you a few seconds of typing: it also reduces the chances of making a mistake so that you don't lose time later trying to figure out what's gone wrong. (The alfblue error mentioned in the previous paragraph cost me about ten minutes.) It also helps you maintain concentration, since you don't have to make a mental switch from the code you're writing to the refactoring you're doing and then back again ().

The Next Level

You and your teammates could use many other tools to make yourselves more productive. Some aren't part of the standard undergraduate curriculum yet, even though good developers have been relying on them for a decade or more. Others may be touched on, but only briefly, so a quick recap won't hurt.

The first is a documentation generator like JSDoc. This is a compiler of a sort, but instead of translating source code into something executable, it extracts information from specially-formatted comments and strings, and turns it into human-readable documentation. The justification for this is that when code and documentation are stored separately, programmers won't keep the latter up to date. Since "rusty" documentation can be worse than no documentation at all, it makes a lot of sense to keep the source of the documentation right beside the code. Many introductory courses require students to document their packages, classes, and methods this way; it's a good habit, and one you should cultivate.

Another set of tools complement the style checkers discussed in . Style checkers do static analysis, i.e., they look at the text of your program while it's at rest. Other tools do dynamic analysis: tools like Valgrind watch your C or C++ program run and look for things like memory leaks, or inconsistent locking that might lead to deadlocks or race conditions.

Real development projects rely on a lot of other tools as well: schedule builders like Microsoft Project, requirements tracing tools, and so on. Most are bigger hammers than undergraduate projects really require, but good programmers don't just use tools, they build them. For example, I have written two dozen short programs to help me write and maintain this book and others like it. These tools do things like check cross-references, make sure I'm using the right CSS attributes for elements, and so on. If you and your teammates find yourselves typing in the same commands over and over again, write a program to do it for you.

From seeds to trees

A lot of open source projects and commercial products began with one programmer solving a problem for themselves and then discovering that other people found it useful as well. Grand Perspective displays a tree map to show what's using disk space on a Mac; Carnac shows what special keys you're pressing on Windows so that if you're doing a demo, people can see the keyboard shortcuts you're using, and so on. Building one small thing well is a lot more useful, and a lot more likely to be used, than building half of something larger.


If you want to go one big step further, you can start using modeling tools like Alloy Jackson2016 and TLA+ Wayne2018. Instead of analyzing source code, you use these tools to build and analyze a model of what the code is supposed to do so that you can look for flaws in your algorithms.

Alloy focuses on describing complex relationships, such as the integrity of data structures; TLA+ is designed to help you reason about sequences of concurrent actions, such as the different ways microservices can exchange messages. Both of them can find counter-examples, i.e., situations that break the rules you have described, but both have interfaces that make Git look simple. These articles give an idea of what they can do; you probably won't have time to learn them along the way while working on a project, but if your school offers a course devoted to them, it will probably change your view of programming just as much as it changed mine.